Insulin is a hormone made in your pancreas, a gland located behind your stomach.Insulin controls the glucose level in the blood.
The islets of Langerhans in the pancreas produces insulin. The name comes from the latin insula for “island”.
A Romanian professor of physiology at the university of Medicine and Pharmacy in Bucharest,was the first to isolate insulin in 1916. He called it pancrein. He isolated it by develop in an aqueous pancreatic extract which, when injected into a diabetic dogs proved to have a normalizing effect on blood sugar level.
Dr Federick Banting also did similar experiments while trying to find a cure for diabetes. In these experiments they used as well dogs.
They first knew insulin would control diabetes in a person, when they injected some insulin into a 14 yrs old boy named Leonard Thompson, who was dying of diabetes. After the injection he survived. Banting won the 1923 Nobel prize in physiology or medicine, along with John Macleod, for the discovery of insulin.
The first genetically-enginered, synthetic ” human ” insulin was produced in a laboratory in 1977 by Herbert Boyer using E.Coli:
The pancreas is an organ that makes hormones and enzymes to help digestion. The pancreas helps break down carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
The part of the pancreas that makes hormones is called the islets of Langerhans. The islets of Langerhans are a small part(2%) of the total cells in the Pancreas. The pancreas work to keep the level of chemicals in balance in the body. If the islets of Langerhans stop working, a person will suffer from a disease called diabetes. The pancreas belongs to two systems of the body, the digestive systems for its role in breaking down nutrients, and the endocarine systems for producing hormones.
The pancreas release these hormones ;
–Insulin ( which decreases the amount of glucose or sugar in the blood.
–Glucagon(which increased the amount of glucose in the blood)
–somatostatin(which reduces production of insulin and glucagon).
When blood glucose levels fall below a certain level, the human body begins to use stored sugar as an energy source through glycogenolysis. Insulin is a central metabolic control mechanism. Insulin is also used as a central signal to other body systems ( such as amino acid uptake by body cells ). It has several other anabolic effects throughout the body. Insulin affects vascular compliance and cognition.
Diabetes mellitus type 1, also called type 1 diabetes, is an auto-immune disease that results in high blood sugar, because the body cannot create enough of the hormone insulin . People with this condition are insulin dependent – they require insulin injections without , which they may die. About 15% of people with diabetes have type 1.
Treatment is designed to help keep blood sugar levels normal in order to reduce the chances of complications developing as the disease progresses.
You should healthy eating a diet focused on fruits and vegetables, limiting fats, salt and sugar.
You should regular physical activity. A good goal to aim for is 150 kinutes of exercise a week.
You should stop smoking , then you stop will reduce( Heart diseases, peripheral arterial diseases and stroke) will reduce the risk of these complications.
You should reducing alcohol, can either raise or lower blood sugar, and makes it difficult to monitor your own blood sugar levels.
When diabetes is first diagnosed, a plan should be made for insulin treatment in order to not under or over dose, which can lead to serious complications.
There are different types of insulin that can be taken –
(i) Rapid-acting insulin and short acting insulin get insulin into the blood streams very quickly. They are typically taken before a meal to prepare for the rise in blood sugar that follows eating food.
(ii)Long acting insulin in the system for upto 24 hours. It is generally taken once a day.
Diabetes should check their blood glucose often. This is to make sure they do not get hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.
S0, we called Insulin is a hormone that performs a variety of task in the human body, and is key to regulating blood sugar levels. Insulin is produced in the pancreas by the Beta cells ( or “B”cells).
When insulin is functioning properly in the body, the hormone keeps the blood glucose level steady at 60 to 100 mg/dl.
Patients with type II diabetes are insulin – resistant – their cells block the normal functioning of insulin. Some type II diabetes eventually require insulin if other medications are insufficient in controlling blood glucose levels.
Insulin is required for all animals ( including human ) life.
Human insulin is now manufactured for widespread clinical use and using genetic engineering techniques.
ELI Lilly marketed the first such insulin. Humulin in 1982.Humulin was the first medication produced using modern genetic engineering techniques.
Insulin is usually taken as subcutaneous injections by hypodermic syringe, an insulin pump,or by repeated use insulin pens with needles.
As with injections, if too much insulin is delivered or the patient eats less then he or she dosed for, there will be hypoglycemia.
On the other hand, if too little insulin is delivered, there will by hyperglycemia. Both can be life threatening.
Medical preparations of insulin ( from the major suppliers – Eli Lilly, Novo Nordisk and Sanofi-Adventis ) The commonly used types of insulin are ;
(1) Rapid acting – such as the insulin analog lispro- begins to work within 5 to 15 minutes and is active for 3 to 4 hours.
(2) Short acting – such as regular insulin starts working within 30 minutes and is active about 5 to 8 hours.
(3) Intermediate acting – such as NPH insulin or lente insulin – starts working in 1 to 3 hours and is active 16 to 24 hours.
(4) Long acting – such as ultralente insulin – Starts working in 4 to 6 hours and is active 24 to 48 hours.
(5) Insulin glargine and Insulin detemir- both insulin analogs which starts working within 1 to 2 hours and continue to be active without peaks or dips, for about 24 hours.
(6) Premixed insulin – a mixture of NPH and regular insulin that starts working in 30 minutes and is active 16 to 24 hours . There are several variations with different proportions of the mixed insulin.
(NPH-insulin , also know as isophane insulin given to help control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. It is used by injection under the skin once to twice a day. Onset of effects is typically in 90 minutes and they last for 24 hours.
Insulin is a protein hormone that is used as a medication to treat high blood glucose. This includes in diabetes mellitus type I, Diabetes mellitus type II, gestational diabetes and complications of diabetes such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hypersomolar hyperglycemic states. Typically it is given by injection under the skin, but some forms may also be used by injection into a vein or muscle.